ืื™ืš ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื‘ืŸ ื ื•ืขืจ ื”ืกื•ื‘ืœ ืžื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ

ื”ืื’ื•ื“ื” ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ืช ืœื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ื‘ืืจื”"ื‘ ืžื’ื“ื™ืจื” ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ื›"ืชืœื•ื ื” ืขืœ ื“ืœื™ืคืช ืฉืชืŸ ื‘ืœืชื™ ืจืฆื•ื ื™ืช". ื‘ื ื™ ื ื•ืขืจ ืขื ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ืื™ื ื ืฉืžื—ื™ื ืœื—ืคืฉ ืขืฆื” ืื• ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื ืกื•ืช ืœื”ืชืžื•ื“ื“ ืขื ื”ืžืฆื‘.

ืžื—ืงืจ ืฉื ืขืจืš ื‘ืงืจื‘ ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ื‘ืจื™ืื™ื ื”ืจืื” ืฉ-3% ืžื‘ื ื™ ื”15-16 ื—ื•ื• ืžืฆื‘ ืฉืœ ื”ืจื˜ื‘ื” ื‘ืฉืขื•ืช ื”ื™ื•ื. ืžื—ืงืจ ืื•ืจืš ืฉื ืขืจืš ื‘ืงืจื‘ ืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ื”ืกื•ื‘ืœื™ื ืžืขืฆื™ืจื•ืช ื”ืจืื” ื›ื™ ืฉืœื™ืฉ ืžื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืื—ืจื™ื”ื ืขืงื‘ื• ืขื“ ื”ื”ืชื‘ื’ืจื•ืช ื”ืžืฉื™ื›ื• ืœืกื‘ื•ืœ ืžืžืฆื‘ ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ. ืœื›ืŸ ื‘ืจื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื™ืฉื ื ื™ื•ืชืจ ื‘ื ื™ ื ื•ืขืจ ืžืžื” ืฉืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœืกื‘ื•ืœ ืžื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื ื™ื”ื•ืœ ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ. ืขื ื–ืืช, ื‘ื ื™ ื ื•ืขืจ ืจื‘ื™ื ืžืกืจื‘ื™ื ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื‘ืขื™ื” ืื• ืœื—ืคืฉ ืคืชืจื•ืŸ. ืจื•ื‘ ืจื•ื‘ื ืฉืœ ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื ื•ืขืจ ืžืืžื™ื ื™ื ื›ื™ ืžืฆื‘ ื–ื” ืžื•ื’ื‘ืœ ืœืงืฉื™ืฉื™ื ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื•ืžืชื‘ื™ื™ืฉื™ื ืœืกืคืจ ืœืื—ืจื™ื ืขืœ ื”ื‘ืขื™ื” ืฉืœื”ื.

ื›ืžื• ื›ืŸ ื ืขืจื™ื ืจื‘ื™ื ื—ื•ืฉืฉื™ื ื•ืžืคื—ื“ื™ื ืžื”ืกื˜ื’ื™ืžื•ืช ื”ืงืฉื•ืจื•ืช ื‘ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืžื•ืฆืจื™ื ืกืคื™ื’ื” ืœืžื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ: ื—ื™ืชื•ืœื™ื ืœืžื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื, ืชื—ืชื•ื ื™ื ืกื•ืคื’ื™ื ืื• ืคื“ื™ื ืœืžื‘ื•ื’ืจื™ื.

ืžื”ื ื”ื’ื•ืจืžื™ื ื”ืืคืฉืจื™ื™ื ืœื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ื‘ืงืจื‘ ื‘ื ื™ ื ื•ืขืจ?

 

ื”ืคืจืขื•ืช ืžื•ืœื“ื•ืช

ืœื“ื‘ืจื™ ื“"ืจ ืจื•ื™, ืจืืฉ ืžื—ืœืงืช ื ื™ืชื•ื—ื™ ืฉื—ื–ื•ืจ ืื’ืŸ ื•ืื•ืจื•ื’ื™ื ื™ืงื•ืœื•ื’ื™ื” ื‘ื‘ื™ืช ื”ื—ื•ืœื™ื ื”ืœืื•ืžื™ ืฉืœ ืื•ื ื™ื‘ืจืกื™ื˜ืช ืกื™ื ื’ืคื•ืจ, ืื ื™ืœื“ ืกื•ื‘ืœ ืžื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ืฉื ืžืฉื›ืช ืืœ ืชื•ืš ืฉื ื•ืช ื”ืขืฉืจื” ืฉืœื•, ื–ื• ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื”ืคืจืขื” ืžื•ืœื“ืช.

ืงื˜ื’ื•ืจื™ื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื•ืช ืฉืœ ื”ืคืจืขื•ืช ืžื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœื›ืœื•ืœ ื”ืคืจืขื•ืช ื›ืจื•ืžื•ื–ื•ื, ื”ืคืจืขื•ืช ื‘ื’ืŸ ื™ื—ื™ื“, ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื‘ื”ืจื™ื•ืŸ ื•ื‘ืขื™ื•ืช ื’ื ื˜ื™ื•ืช ืื—ืจื•ืช.

 

ื–ื™ื”ื•ืžื™ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ ื”ืฉืชืŸ ืื• ื“ืœืงืช ื‘ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ

ืื ื ืขืจ ืื• ื ืขืจื” ืžืชื—ื™ืœื™ื ืœื—ื•ื•ืช ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ืžื™ื“ ืœืื—ืจ ืคืขื™ืœื•ืช ืžื™ื ื™ืช, ื”ื ืขืฉื•ื™ื™ื ืœืกื‘ื•ืœ ืžื–ื™ื”ื•ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื™ ื”ืฉืชืŸ ืื• ื‘ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ. ื‘ืžืฆื‘ื™ื ืืœื” ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ืœืจื•ืงืŸ ืืช ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช, ืขืœ ืืฃ ืฉื ืžืฆื ื‘ื” ืจืง ืžืขื˜ ืฉืชืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืคืขื.

ื‘ืžืฆื‘ ื–ื”, ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ื•ืฆืจ ื“ืœื™ืคื” ืฉืœ ืฉืชืŸ ืขื•ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืžื’ื™ืขื™ื ืœืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื. ื›ืื‘ ื‘ื–ืžืŸ ืžืชืŸ ื”ืฉืชืŸ ืื• ืชื—ื•ืฉืช ืฆืจื™ื›ื” ืžืœื•ื•ื” ืžืฆื‘ื™ื ืืœื” ื‘ื“ืจืš ื›ืœืœ. ืืคืฉืจ ื’ื ืœื”ื‘ื—ื™ืŸ ื›ื™ ื”ืฉืชืŸ ื ืจืื” ื›ืžืขื•ืจื‘ื‘ ื‘ื“ื. ืื ื“ืœืงื•ืช ืืœื” ืื™ื ืŸ ืžื˜ื•ืคืœื•ืช, ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื’ืจื ืžืฆื‘ ื‘ื• ืœื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืจื•ืงืŸ ืืช ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ ื•ื”ื‘ืจื™ื—ื” ืฉืœ ื”ืฉืชืŸ ืžื—ืžื™ืจื”. ื”ื›ื•ื•ื ื” ืœืžืฆื‘ ื‘ื• ื”ืฉืชืŸ ื“ื•ืœืฃ ืœืœื ื”ืคืขืœื” ืฉืœ ืœื—ืฅ ืคื™ื–ื™ ื—ื™ืฆื•ื ื™ ื•ืœืœื ืื–ื”ืจื”.

 

ืื™ืš ืœื˜ืคืœ ื‘ื‘ืŸ ื ื•ืขืจ ื”ืกื•ื‘ืœ ืžื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ

ืฉื•ืคืš ื›ืคื•ืœ

ื”ืฉื•ืคืš ืžื ืงื– ืืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ ืžืŸ ื”ื›ืœื™ื” ืืœ ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ. ื ืขืจื” ื”ืกื•ื‘ืœืช ืžืฉื•ืคืš ื›ืคื•ืœ, ื™ื™ืชืŸ ืฉื”ื•ื ืžืชื ืงื– ืœืชื•ืš ื”ื 

ืจืชื™ืง ืฉืœื”. ื–ื” ื’ื•ืจื ืœื—ื•ืกืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืœื”ื—ื–ื™ืง ืืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ ื•ื–ื•ื”ื™ ื‘ืขื™ื” ืžืชืžืฉื›ืช, ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืฉืชืŸ ืžืชืจื—ืฉ ื‘ืžื”ื™ืจื•ืช ืฉืœ 1-2 ืž"ืœ ืœื“ืงื”.

ื‘ืžืฆื‘ ืื—ืจ ื‘ื• ื ื•ืœื“ื™ื ืขื ืฉื•ืคื›ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื• ืžืชื—ื‘ืง ืœืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ, ื”ื•ื ืขืœื•ืœ ืœื”ืชื ืงื– ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช. ืืฆืœ ื‘ื ื•ืช ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืชื ืงื– ืœืชื•ืš ื”ืฉื•ืคืขื” ื•ืืฆืœ ื‘ื ื™ื ืœื™ื“ ื”ืขืจืžื•ื ื™ืช ืื• ื‘ืชื•ืš ืื™ื‘ืจื™ ื”ืžื™ืŸ.

 

ืชืจื•ืคื•ืช

ื ื˜ื™ืœื” ืฉืœ ืชืจื•ืคื•ืช ืขืœื•ืœื” ืœื’ืจื•ื ืœื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ื›ืชื•ืคืขืช ืœื•ื•ืื™. ืชืจื•ืคื•ืช ื”ืจื’ืขื” ื•ืชืจื•ืคื•ืช ืœื”ืจืคื™ื” ืฉืœ ืฉืจื™ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื•ืช ืœื”ืฉืคื™ืข ืžืื•ื“ ืขืœ ื”ืคื—ืชืช ื”ืฉืœื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ, ื›ืžื• ื’ื ืชืจื•ืคื•ืช ืœืœื‘ ืื• ืœืœื—ืฅ ื“ื. ืื ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ ื”ืชื—ื™ืœื” ืกื‘ื™ื‘ ื ื˜ื™ืœืช ืชืจื•ืคื” ื—ื“ืฉื”, ืจืฆื•ื™ ืœื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฅ ื‘ื”ืงื“ื ืขื ื”ืจื•ืคื ื”ืžื˜ืคืœ.

 

ืื™ืš ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ืœืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ืœื ื”ืœ ืืช ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ?

ื›ืืฉืจ ืขื•ื–ืจื™ื ืœืžืชื‘ื’ืจื™ื ืœื—ืคืฉ ืคืชืจื•ื ื•ืช, ื–ื” ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืงื•ื“ื ื›ืœ ืœื”ื‘ื™ืŸ ืื™ื–ื” ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื. ืกื•ื’ื™ื ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ื”ื:

ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ืžื“ื—ืฃ – ืคืขืžื™ื ืจื‘ื•ืช ืžื›ื•ื ื” ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ืจื’ื™ื–ื”. ืžืฆื‘ ื–ื” ื›ืจื•ืš ื‘ืฆื•ืจืš ืคืชืื•ืžื™ ื•ื—ื–ืง ืœืจื•ืงืŸ ืืช ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ, ืขื•ื“ ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื”ื’ืขื” ืœืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื.

ย ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ืžืœื—ืฅ – ื–ื” ืงื•ืจื” ื‘ืžื”ืœืš ืคืขื™ืœื•ื™ื•ืช ืžืกื•ื™ืžื•ืช, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืฉื™ืขื•ืœ, ื”ืจืžืช, ื”ืชืขืžืœื•ืช, ื•ืฆื—ื•ืง.

ย ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ืžืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ืžืœืื” ื™ืชืจ ืขืœ ื”ืžื™ื“ื” – ื–ื” ืงื•ืจื” ื›ืืฉืจ ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช ื”ืฉืชืŸ ืื™ื ื” ืžืกื•ื’ืœืช ืœื”ืชืจื•ืงืŸ ืœื—ืœื•ื˜ื™ืŸ, ืžื” ืฉืžื•ื‘ื™ืœ ืœื“ืœื™ืคื•ืช.

ื—ื•ืกืจ ืฉืœื™ื˜ื” ื‘ืฆื•ืื” – ื—ื•ืกืจ ื™ื›ื•ืœืช ืœืฉืœื•ื˜ ื‘ืชื ื•ืขื•ืช ื”ืžืขื™, ื•ื›ืชื•ืฆืื” ืžื›ืš ื”ืจืคื™ื” ืœื ืจืฆื•ื ื™ืช ืฉืœื”ื.

ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื•ืฉื ืขื“ื™ืŸ ืœืฉื•ื—ื— ืขืœื™ื• ืขื ืžื™ืฉื”ื•. ื›ืืฉืจ ืžื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืขื ืื“ื ืขืœ ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื“ื™ืกืงืจื˜ื™ื™ื ื•ืจื’ื•ืขื™ื. ืื ืœื ืฉื•ืžืจื™ื ืขืœ ืงื•ืจ ืจื•ื—, ื—ืฉื•ื‘ ืžืื•ื“ ืœื‘ืฆืข ืืช ื”ืฉื™ื—ื” ื‘ืคืจื˜ื™ื•ืช ืžื•ื—ืœื˜ืช. ืœื ืฆืจื™ืš ืœืจืžื•ื– ื›ื™ ื”ืžืฆื‘ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืขื™ื™ืชื™ ืื• ืœื ื ื•ื—, ืืœื ืคืฉื•ื˜ ืœื”ืชื—ื™ืœ ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืžืชืŸ ืฉื™ื˜ื•ืช ืชืžื™ื›ื”.

ืœืžืจื•ืช ืฉื ื™ืชื•ื— ื”ื•ื ืื•ืคืฆื™ื”, ืžื•ืžืœืฅ ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ืคืฉื•ื˜ื™ื ื‘ืื•ืจื— ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืฉืžืขืœื™ื ืืคืฉืจื•ื™ื•ืช ืงื™ืฆื•ื ื™ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ื ื™ืชื•ื—. ืžืกืคืจ ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ืกื’ื ื•ืŸ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉืืชื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ืืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื:

  • ืขื™ืฉื•ืŸ ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ื—ืžื™ืจ ืืช ื—ื•ืœืฉืช ื”ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช. ืื ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืฉืœื›ื ืžืขืฉื ื™ื, ืฉื•ื•ื” ืœื”ืฆื™ืข ื›ื™ ื™ืงืฆืฆื• ืื• ื™ืคืกื™ืงื• ืœืขืฉืŸ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืžื ื•ืข ืžื”ื‘ืขื™ื” ืœื”ื—ืžื™ืจ.
  • ื‘ืจืจื• ืขื ื”ื™ืœื“ื™ื ืžื” ื”ื ืื•ื›ืœื™ื ืื• ืฉื•ืชื™ื ืขืœ ื‘ืกื™ืก ืงื‘ื•ืข. ืžื–ื•ื ื•ืช ืžืกื•ื™ืžื™ื ื”ื•ื›ื—ื• ื›ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ืฉืคืขื” ืจืขื” ืขืœ ื”ืžืฆื‘. ืื•ื›ืœ ื—ืจื™ืฃ, ืคื™ืจื•ืช ื”ื“ืจ, ืžืฉืงืื•ืช ืžื•ื’ื–ื™ื, ื—ืœื‘ ื•ืžืžืชื™ืงื™ื ืžืœืื›ื•ืชื™ื™ื ื”ื•ื›ื—ื• ื›ืžื—ืžื™ืจื™ื ืกื™ืžืคื˜ื•ืžื™ื ืฉืœ ื‘ืจื™ื—ืช ืฉืชืŸ.
  • ื•ื“ืื• ื›ื™ ื”ื ืฉื•ืชื™ื 6-8 ื›ื•ืกื•ืช ืžื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ื ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœืฉื˜ื•ืฃ ืืช ื”ืฉืœืคื•ื—ื™ืช. ืื•ืžื ื ื”ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ื‘ื”ืชื—ืœื” ืœืœื›ืช ืœืขื™ืชื™ื ืงืจื•ื‘ื•ืช ื™ื•ืชืจ ืœืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ื, ื‘ืกื•ืฃ ื”ืžืขืจื›ืช ืชื’ื™ืข ืœืฉื™ื•ื•ื™ ืžืฉืงืœ.
  • ื”ืฆื™ืขื• ืœื”ืคื—ื™ืช ืฆืจื™ื›ืช ืงืคืื™ืŸ ืžืงืคื”, ืชื” ื•ืžืฉืงืื•ืช ืื ืจื’ื™ื”. ืชื” ืฆืžื—ื™ื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืžืฉื™ืš ืœืฉืชื•ืช.

 

ืื ืฉื™ื ื•ื™ื™ื ื‘ืื•ืจื— ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืœื ืขื•ื‘ื“ื™ื, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื”ืชื™ื™ืขืฅ ืขื ื”ืจื•ืคื ื”ืžื˜ืคืœ ืขืœ ืื•ืคืฆื™ื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช.